The Great War: 100 Years Later (Then and Now)

Snapshots of Canada’s Past: History is more than just words on a screen or from a textbook; this series is a thematic look back at Canadian history through visual imagery.

A man stands before the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme in Arras, France. [Source]

November 11th, 2018 at 11:00am marks the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War. Beginning on July 28, 1914, “the war of end all wars” eventually spread to the far corners of the earth, embroiling much of the world in–still to this day–one of the deadliest conflict in history.

By the Numbers:
9,900,000+ soldiers died
7,000,000+ civilians killed
21,000,000+ military personnel wounded

425,000+ Canadians served overseas
Almost 60,000 were killed
172,000+ were wounded
1,305 died in the Halifax Explosion

To put those numbers in prospective, Canada’s population was around 8,000,000 at the time. With all this in mind, this post is meant to honour not just the Canadians who served, but all those across the world who died. Below the cut are some photos that not only show what places looked like back then in comparison to today, but the lasting scars and how landscapes were altered. For more then and now photos, please check out the listed sources. Continue reading

Return to Vimy: Resource for Teachers

Return to Vimy, Denis McCready, provided by the National Film Board of Canada. “This is the first time the NFB has colourized its own archives for a film project, shedding unprecedented light on the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) film collection.”

Sick of hearing about Vimy Ridge? Too bad! I found this great nine minute film that can help teachers who want to bring World War I to life for their students.

The story follows a Canadian woman who visits the Vimy Memorial to make a charcoal imprint of the engraved name of her great-grandfather who died during the battle. She has his notebook which is full of sketches and diary entries that he made during months of preparation for Vimy Ridge. These sketches turn into colourized archive footage and enables us to witness the daily lives of the soldiers of the Canadian Corps and watch the detailed preparations that went to this battle. WW1 battle footage is shown, maps are used to support explanations, you see Sir Arthur Currie walking around/making plans, the Nursing Sisters pop up—seriously this short film has everything.

Looking for more Vimy Ridge resources? Check out my whole page dedicated to the battle.

Three Takes on the Ends of War

Torontoians read about Germany’s surrender on VE-Day. Old City Hall is in the background.

For Remembrance Day this year, I thought I would change things up and take a look at a couple of primary sources to see how three newspapers from Toronto described the end of World War I and II. For those interested in more traditional posts, please check out Armistice Day, The End of World War II in Canada, and Veterans’ Stories: Morkin and Strachan. Continue reading

1917 Vs. 2017

Happy Canada Day!

Today marks our sesquicentennial aka the 150th anniversary of Confederation.

I’m currently in Ottawa taking in the festivities. As such, here is a mini post dedicated 100 years ago today–Canada’s golden year.


Dominion Day / 50th Anniversary of Confederation (1917)

The 50th anniversary of Confederation was low-key. At the time the country was consumed by the devastating Great War and was being torn apart by the Conscription Crisis. According to the Ottawa Citizen, an official ceremony took place at noon on Monday, July 2 on Parliament Hill. Prime Minister Robert Borden, Opposition Leader Wilfrid Laurier, and Governor General Victor Cavendish each gave a speech in front of the under-construction Parliament Buildings. The Centre Block had burned down the year prior.  After a choir sang O Canada, the Centre Block was officially dedicated to the Fathers of Confederation and those fighting in the Great War. The final part of the ceremony involved a parade of 7 military units, 250 veterans, Dominion police, city police, fire brigade, boy scouts, and girl guides.

While it annoys me to no end that I could not find any pictures of the ceremony in Ottawa, here are some photos of Canadians celebrating on July 1-2, 1917:

Fun Fact: Dominion Day was renamed Canada Day in 1982.


Images courtesy of:
Library and Archives Canada + “Alice’s Album”
Vancouver Public Library
Niagara Falls Public Library

The Rise and Fall of Prohibition in Canada (Part One)


Tree of Intemperance by Archibald Macbrair (c. 1855) – This is an American cartoon, but I think it best sums up the temperance movement. To supporters, alcohol was the root of social and moral evils.

Continuing our look into ridiculous events in Canadian history: Prohibition. The banning of alcohol has a bit of a convoluted history in Canada. Unlike in the United States were the Volstead Act was a federal bill that banned alcohol nationwide from 1920-1933, prohibition was a matter largely left up to the Canadian provinces and therefore happened stages and at different times. By-and-large, the provinces instituted the ban during World War One and repealed it during the 1920s (minus a few exceptions) because not only was prohibition a major failure, it was vastly unpopular. It wasn’t always that way though. Before we get to the “fall” aka speakeasies, rum-running, and all that fun stuff, we have to cover the “rise.” This post will look at how prohibition came to be in Canada. Continue reading

Vimy Ridge Resource Post

Canadian soldiers returning from Vimy Ridge (c. April 1917). [Source] – This is a colourized version of arguably the most famous photo from the battle. Click here for the original.

100 years ago today, for the first time the Canadian Corps’ four divisions came together on the battlefield. The Battle of Vimy Ridge (April 9-12, 1917) was fought over what historian Tim Cook describes as an “open graveyard,” as it was the sight of over 100,000 previous French casualties. Over the course of four days, the Canadians Corps succeeded where earlier Allied assaults had failed. They overtook the heavily-fortified, seven-kilometre ridge and pushed the Germans back to the Oppy–Méricourt line. In the process, 3,598 Canadians were killed and another 7,004 were wounded. Years later, Vimy Ridge would be seen as Canada’s most important battle of World War One.

I have mostly avoided talking about Vimy Ridge because it is the most heavily discussed, analyzed, and mythologized battle in Canadian history. After all, what is there to add when even the debate over whether Vimy was “the birth of a nation” appears to have come full circle? Nevertheless, to honour the occasion, I created a massive resource post full of information, resources, pictures, videos, art, for all those interested in the battle and the legacy of Vimy Ridge.
Continue reading

Canadian POWs: First World War Edition

Group of Canadian officers at a prisoner-of-war camp near Krefeld, Germany. 1917. [Source]

During the First World War, 132 Canadian officers and 3,715 individuals from the Canadian Expeditionary Force were taken prisoner. The largest number of these, over 1,400, were taken in a single day in 1915 during the Second Battle of Ypres, when the 1st Canadian Division was first introduced to chlorine gas by the Germans. The 3rd Canadian Division also suffered a large number of prisoners at Mount Sorrel in June 1916. Over 500 men were captured in one day. In addition, an unknown number of Canadian civilians (largely students studying abroad, businessmen, and sailors) were captured as well. By the end of the war, 300 Canadian soldiers had died in captivity along the western front.

After they were captured, what was the general experience of Canadian prisoners of war during World War One? Continue reading

Veterans’ Stories: Morkin and Strachan


Lt. Harcus Strachan, Fort Garry Horse, Dec 1917. Photo digitally colourized by Canadian Colour. Would you be able to charge towards machine gun fire on a horse with a sword as your only weapon like Strachan did?

On November 11th every year, we honour the millions of Canadians who have fought, served, and died in for their country over the past century. However, most stories don’t get told. Many acts of bravery and sacrifice are forgotten. That’s why for Remembrance Day this year I thought I would changes things up and share two veterans’ stories: Martha Morkin, a Nursing Sister from World War I and Harcus Strachan, a veteran of both world wars and a Victoria Cross recipient. Although (spoiler alert) both survived, their experiences exemplify the horrors of war and why working towards maintaining peace is never a fool’s cause. Continue reading

Beaumont-Hamel: What Went Wrong?

“Young people lay wreaths during a service to mark the 100th anniversary of the start of the Battle of the Somme at the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Memorial in Thiepval, France.” [Source]

This past Friday marked the 100th anniversary of the start of the Battle of the Somme. July 1, 1916 was one of the worst days in British military history. Of the 57,470 British casualties on that one day, 19,240 were killed; most of which occurred within the first two hours. Within those numbers lies the majority of the First Newfoundland Regiment. Before the soldiers went over the top, they were over 800 strong. How is that only 68 men were able to answer roll call the following day? What exactly went wrong and why does the disaster at Beaumont-Hamel still resonate today? Continue reading

Canadian WWI Political Cartoons

Snapshots of Canada’s Past: History is more than just words on a screen or from a textbook; this series is a thematic look back at Canadian history through visual imagery.

Eye-catching posters weren’t the only art form during the First World War designed to deliver a message to the Canadian public. Newspapers across the country utilized their artists to depict the war abroad through political cartoons. However, unlike the government  and the Red Cross, their agendas weren’t always pro-war. This post takes a look at how political cartoons changed overtime as the journalists and the public’s opinion of the war began to sour as the years went on. Also, we will be looking at other issues that arose during the Great War and how Canadian cartoonists responded to them as well. Continue reading